Leveraging interfaces in golang - Part 2

Published Jul 08, 2017Last updated Nov 18, 2017

In my previous blog post, we have seen how interfaces in golang can help us to come up with a cleaner design. In this blog post, we are going to see an another interesting use case of applying golang's interfaces in creating adapters!

Some Context

In my current project, we are using Postgres for persisting the application data. To make our life easier, we are using gorm to talk to Postgres from our golang code. Things were going well and we started rolling out new features without any challenges. One beautiful day, we came across an interesting requirement which gave us a run for the money.

The requirement is to store and retrieve an array of strings from Postgres!


It sounds simple on paper but while implementing it we found that it is not straightforward. Let me explain what the challenge was and how we solved it through a Task list example

The Database Side

Let's assume that we have database mytasks with a table tasks to keep track of the tasks.

The tasks table has the following schema

  is_completed BOOL NOT NULL,
  tags VARCHAR(10)[]

An important thing to note over here is that each task has an array of tags of type varchar(10).

The Golang Side

The equivalent model definition of the tasks table would look like the following in Golang

type Task struct {
  Id          uint
  Name        string
  IsCompleted bool
  Tags        []string

The Challenge

Everything is set to test drive the task creation.

Let's see what happens when we try to create a new task!

package main
import (

  _ "github.com/jinzhu/gorm/dialects/postgres"

func panicOnError(err error) {
  if err != nil {

func CreateTask(db *gorm.DB, name string, tags []string) (uint, error) {
  newTask := &Task{Name: name, Tags: tags}
  result := db.Create(newTask)
  if result.Error != nil {
    return 0, result.Error
  return newTask.Id, nil

func main() {
  db, err := gorm.Open("postgres",
      user=postgres password=test
  defer db.Close()

  id, err := CreateTask(db, "test 123", []string{"personal", "test"})
  fmt.Printf("Task %d has been created\n", id)

When we run this program, it will panic with the following error message

panic: sql: converting Exec argument $3 type: unsupported type []string, a slice of string

As the error message says, the SQL driver doesn't support []string. From the documentation, we can found that the SQL drivers only support the following values


So, we can't persist the task with the tags using this approach.

Golang's interface in Action

As a first step towards the solution, let's see how the plain SQL insert query provides the value for arrays in Postgres

INSERT INTO tasks(name,is_completed,tags) VALUES('buy milk',false,'{"home","delegate"}');

The clue here is the plain SQL expects the value for array as a string with the following format

'{ val1 delim val2 delim ... }'

double quotes around element values if they are empty strings, contain curly braces, delimiter characters, double quotes, backslashes, or white space, or match the word NULL. Double quotes and backslashes embedded in element values will be backslash-escaped. - Postgres Documentation

That's great! All we need to do is convert the []string to string which follows the format specified above.

An easier approach would be changing the Tags field of the Task struct to string and do this conversion somewhere in the application code before persisting the task.

But it's not a cleaner approach as the resulting code is not semantically correct!

Golang provides a neat solution to this problem through the Valuer interface

Types implementing Valuer interface are able to convert themselves to a driver Value.

That is we need to have a type representing the []string type and implement this interface to do the type conversion.

Like we did in the part-1 of this series, let's make use of named types by creating a new type called StringSlice

type StringSlice []string

Then we need to do the type conversion in the Value method

func (stringSlice StringSlice) Value() (driver.Value, error) {
  var quotedStrings []string
  for _, str := range stringSlice {
    quotedStrings = append(quotedStrings, strconv.Quote(str))
  value := fmt.Sprintf("{ %s }", strings.Join(quotedStrings, ","))
  return value, nil


With this new type in place, we can change the datatype of Tags field from []string to StringSlice in the Task struct.

If we rerun the program, it will work as expected!!

Task 1 has been created

Filter by tag

Let's move to the query side of the problem.

We would like to get a list of tasks associated with a particular tag.

It'd be a straightforward function that uses the find method in gorm.

func GetTasksByTag(db *gorm.DB, tag string) ([]Task, error) {
  tasks := []Task{}
  result := db.Find(&tasks, "? = any(tags)", tag)
  if result.Error != nil {
    return nil, result.Error
  return tasks, nil

Then we need to call it from our main function

// ...
func main() {
  // ...
  tasks, err := GetTasksByTag(db, "project-x")

Unfortunately, if we run the program, it will panic with the following error message

panic: sql: Scan error on column index 3: unsupported Scan, storing driver.Value type []uint8 into 
type *main.StringSlice; sql: Scan error on column index 3: unsupported Scan, 
storing driver.Value type []uint8 into type *main.StringSlice

As the error message says, the SQL driver unable to scan (unmarshal) the data type byte slice ([]uint8) into our custom type StringSlice.

To fix this, we need to provide a mechanism to convert []uint8 to StringSlice which in turn will be used by the SQL driver while scanning.

Like the Valuer interface, Golang provides Scanner interface to do the data type conversion while scanning.

The signature of the Scanner interface returns an error and not the converted value.

type Scanner interface {  
  Scan(src interface{}) error

So, it implies the implementor of this interface should have a pointer receiver (*StringSlice) which will mutate its value upon successful conversion.

func (stringSlice *StringSlice) Scan(src interface{}) error { 
  // ...

In the implementation of this interface, we just need to convert the byte slice into a string slice by converting it to a string (Postgres representation of array value) first, and then to StringSlice

[]uint8 --> {home,delegate} --> []string{"home", "delegate"} 

After successful conversion, we need to assign the converted value to the receiver (*stringSlice)

func (stringSlice *StringSlice) Scan(src interface{}) error { 
  val, ok := src.([]byte)
  if !ok {
    return fmt.Errorf("unable to scan")
  value := strings.TrimPrefix(string(val), "{")
  value = strings.TrimSuffix(value, "}")

  *stringSlice = strings.Split(value, ",")

  return nil

That's it. If we run the program now, we can see the output as expected.

[{2 schedule meeting with the team false [project-x]} 
  {3 prepare for client demo false [slides project-x]}]


In this blog post, we have seen how we can make use of Valuer and Scanner interfaces in golang to marshal and unmarshal our custom data type from the database.

The source code can be found in my GitHub repository

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