Published Jun 20, 2017

Volley is a networking library developed by Google and introduced during Google I/O 2013. It was developed because of the absence, in the Android SDK, of a networking class capable of working without interfering with the user experience.

Until the release of Volley, the canonical Java class java.net.HttpURLConnection and the Apache org.apache.http.client were the only tools available to Android programmers to develop a RESTful system between a client and a remote backend.

Putting aside for a moment the fact that these two classes aren't exempt from bugs, it should be noted how everything that went beyond a simple HTTP transaction had to be written ex novo. If you wanted to cache images or prioritize requests, you had to develop it from scratch.

Fortunately, now there's Volley, created and tailored to fulfill these needs.

** 1. Why Volley?**
Avoid HttpUrlConnection and HttpClient

On lower API levels (mostly on Gingerbread and Froyo), HttpUrlConnection and HttpClient are far from being perfect. There are some knownissues and bugs that were never fixed. Moreover, HttpClient was deprecated in the last API update (API 22), which means that it will no longer be maintained and may be removed in a future release.

These are sufficient reasons for deciding to switch to a more reliable way of handling your network requests.
And Avoid AsyncTask Too

Since the introduction of Honeycomb (API 11), it's been mandatory to perform network operations on a separate thread, different from the main thread. This substantial change led the way to massive use of the AsyncTask<Params, Progress, Result> specification.

With AsyncTask, you first define some preparatory actions, such as the definition of the context, in onPreExecute. You then perform your asynchronous tasks using the doInBackground method. Finally, you handle results in onPostExecute. It's pretty straightforward, way easier than the implementation of a service, and comes with a ton of examples and documentation.

The main problem, however, is the serialization of the calls. Using the AsyncTask class, you can't decide which request goes first and which one has to wait. Everything happens FIFO, first in, first out.

The problems arise, for example, when you have to load a list of items that have attached a thumbnail. When the user scrolls down and expects new results, you can't tell your activity to first load the JSON of the next page and only then the images of the previous one. This can become a serious user experience problem in applications such as Facebook or Twitter, where the list of new items is more important than the thumbnail associated with it.

Volley aims to solve this problem by including a powerful cancellation API. You no longer need to check in onPostExecute whether the activity was destroyed while performing the call. This helps avoiding an unwanted NullPointerException.
It's Much Faster

Some time ago, the Google+ team did a series of performance tests on each of the different methods you can use to make network requests on Android. Volley got a score up to ten times better than the other alternatives when used in RESTful applications.
It Caches Everything

Volley automatically caches requests and this is something truly life-saving. Let’s return for a moment to the example I gave earlier. You have a list of items—a JSON array let’s say—and each item has a description and a thumbnail associated with it. Now think about what happens if the user rotates the screen: the activity is destroyed, the list is downloaded again, and so are the images. Long story short, a significant waste of resources and a poor user experience.

Volley proves to be extremely useful for overcoming this issue. It remembers the previous calls it did and handles the activity destruction and reconstruction. It caches everything without you having to worry about it.
Small Metadata Operations

Volley is perfect for small calls, such as JSON objects, portions of lists, details of a selected item, and so on. It has been devised for RESTful applications and in this particular case it gives its very best.

It is not so good, however, when employed for streaming operations and large downloads. Contrary to common belief, Volley's name doesn't come from the sport dictionary. It’s rather intended as repeated bursts of calls, grouped together. It's somehow intuitive why this library doesn't come in handy when, instead of a volley of arrows, you want to fire a cannon ball.

2.Main Thread**

On the main thread, consistently with what you already do in the AsyncTask specification, you are only allowed to fire the request and handle its response. Nothing more, nothing less.

The main consequence is that you can actually ignore everything that was going on in the doInBackground method. Volley automatically manages the HTTP transactions and the catching network errors that you needed to care about before.
Cache and Network Threads

When you add a request to the queue, several things happens under the hood. First, Volley checks if the request can be serviced from cache. If it can, the cached response is read, parsed, and delivered. Otherwise it is passed to the network thread.

On the network thread, a round-robin with a series of threads is constantly working. The first available network thread dequeues the request, makes the HTTP request, parses the response, and writes it to cache. To finish, it dispatches the parsed response back to the main thread where your listeners are waiting to handle the result.
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